PRIVATE LABEL

Professional Skin Care Products

Salon Technologies International

GLOSSARY OF INGREDIENTS 


A

Acne vulgaris
(Commonly called acne) is a skin disease caused by changes in the pilosebaceous units (skin structures consisting of a hair follicle and it’s associated sebaceous gland). Severe acne is inflammatory, but acne can also manifest in noninflammatory forms. Acne lesions are commonly referred to as pimples, spots, or zits.

Aloe Vera
Extracts from Aloe Vera are widely used in the cosmetics and alternative medicine industries, being marketed as variously having rejuvenating, healing or soothing properties. Used in products such as makeup, tissues, moisturizers, soaps, sunscreens, razors and shampoos. The benefits of Aloe Vera extend even to stimulating production of collagen and elastin both of which are necessary to prevent aging of the skin. As a moisturizer Aloe Vera is popular as it removes dead cells and aids in the penetration of healthy substances.

Alpha -Arbutin

Arbutin is a naturally occuring derivative of hydroquinone found in the leaves of cranberry, bearberry and blueberry shrubs,most types of pears and many other plants. Arbutin inhibits melanogenesis by affecting tyrosinase activity and thus prevents the formation of melanin. Arbutin is therefore used as a skin-lightening agent.

Alpha Hydroxy Acids
Often found in products claiming to reduce wrinkles or the signs of aging, and improve the overall look and feel of the skin They are also used as chemical peels available in a dermatologist's office, beauty and health spas and home kits, which usually contain a lower concentration. AHA’s are Glycolic Acid ( from sugar cane ), Lactic Acid ( from sour milk), Malic acid ( from apples ), Citric acid ( from fruits) and Tartaric Acid ( from grape wine).

Apricot kernel oil
Is well suited to skin care, and is often used as a carrier oil. Carrier oils are used as a base for aromatherapy mixtures, or are mixed with other oils to help them spread. Because apricot kernel oil is readily absorbed into the skin without leaving an oily residue behind, it is an excellent choice of carrier oil for all skin types. The ready absorption also makes it a good choice of skin care oil for people with dry skin, while the gentleness of apricot kernel oil makes it mild enough to use on the elderly. For skin nutrition, apricot kernel oil contains the essential fatty acids oleic and linoleic acid. It is also high in vitamins A and E. All of these substances can help to sooth irritated skin while also moisturizing. Regular applications of apricot kernel oil or products containing it can keep skin smooth and flexible. Apricot kernel oil is also used in lotions, creams, and balms, as well as in soaps. It is frequently used in massage oils as well.

Argireline
Is the trade name for Acetyl Hexapeptide-3, a synthetic anti-aging cosmetic ingredient derived from natural proteins. It is a peptide; a chain made up of amino acids. The functionality of Argireline in skin care products used on the face derives from the fact that it inhibits the reactions that cause the muscles to contract – example smiling or frowning. When we make facial expressions on a regular basis ( eg. Smiling) the repetitive muscle movements create lines or wrinkles. It is this reduction in the muscle movement caused by the Argireline that has been shown to produce the anti-aging effect. The attenuation of muscular contractions can reduce the depth of existing wrinkles.

Arnica 
Arnica ( Arnica Montana ) has been known to be used since the 1500’s. For external use it is often used as first line remedy to soothe muscle aches and to reduce inflammation in sprains and bruises, rheumatic pain, inflammation from insect bites.

Ascorbic Acid ( L-Ascorbic Acid)
Ascorbic acid is water soluble and it’s effectiveness against wrinkles and fine lines is backed by a fair amount of reliable scientific evidence. Due to it’s lack of stability once exposed to air whereby it oxidizes , we have used the more stable forms of Vit C in our formulations ; Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate , Ascorbyl Palmitate and Sodium Ascobyl Phosphate.

Ascorbyl Palmitate
Is the most widely used fat-soluble derivative of Vitamin C in skin care. It is non-irritating and more stable

Astringent
Is a chemical that tends to shrink or constrict body tissues, usually locally after topical medicinal application. The word "astringent" derives from Latin “adstringere”, meaning "to bind fast". Two common examples are calamine lotion and witch hazel.

B
Bentonite

Type of clay that is used as an absorbent in cosmetics. It primarily works to absorb oil and other impurities from the skin. Bentonite most often appears in facial masks as a secondary ingredient.  In addition to masks, you can also find Bentonite in facial cleansers, foundations, acne treatments and lotion/cremes. 


C

Camphor
Is a rubefacient – it relives mild pain and itching and creates inflammation and redness when rubbed into skin. It has a cooling effect when applied to the skin.

Chondrus Crispus ( Irish Moss Seaweed)
This extract contains Vit A,B,C and D. Supports the skins natural moisture barrier and enhances the skins ability to retain vital moisture and essential lipids.

Citric Acid
Citric Acid is a natural anti-oxidant derived from citrus fruit and is a naturally occuring alph hydroxy acid.Is used in skin care as such and also as an astringent. It is also a natural pH adjuster and often is used as a preservative. Citric Acid,because of its potent antioxidant qualities,helps prevent oxidative damage from sunlight by antioxidant chelation activity in the skin and reduces the visual signs of photoaging.

Cleanser
Is a facial care product that is used to remove make-up, dead skin cells, oil, dirt and other types of pollutants from the skin of the face. This helps to unclog pores and prevent skin conditions such as acne.

Coenzyme 10 / CoQ-10
CoQ-10 is an active anti-aging skin care ingredient that is also known as Coenzyme Q-10 or Ubiquinone. CoQ-10 is a powerful anti-oxidant – thus in skin care it assists in controlling the damaging effects of free radical activity as well as improve skin health.

Collagen
Is the main protein of connective tissue in animals and the most abundant protein in mammals, along with soft keratin and it is responsible for skin strength and elasticity, and its degradation leads to wrinkles that accompany aging.

Copper Peptide Complex

Copper peptides help activate the natural human biological processes that rebuild and renew skin, nails and hair. Clinical studies have found that copper-peptides to be more effective in restoring the skin’s collagen than Vit C.

Cyclomethicone
A silicone oil used in hair and skin care products to impart shine and/or silkiness.

D

E


Exfoliation
Involves the removal of the oldest dead skin cells on the skin’s outermost surface, and has been used for many years to help maintain the skin.

F

Fruit Acid
The “Fruit Acids’ are also commonly referred to as “Alpha Hydroxy Acids” – Glycolic, Citric, Lactic, Malic, and Tartaric Acid.

G

Glycolic acid
Glycolic acid is the smallest alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA). It is colorless and odorless. Due to its excellent capability to penetrate the skin,glycolic acid has a broad use in skin care products,most often as a chemical peel. It is used to improve the skins appearance and texture. It may reduce wrinkles,acne scarring,hyperpigmentation. When it is applied,it reacts with the upper layer of the epidermis,weakening the binding properties of the lipids that hold the dead skin cells together. This allows the outer skin to “dissolve” revealing the underlying skin.


H

Hyaluronic acid
Skin care products containing this substance are often used in conjunction with vitamin C products to assist in effective penetration. Hyaluronic acid is often touted for its ability to “reverse” or stop aging. Hyaluronic acid is a major component of the skin,where it is involved in tissue repair. When skin is excessively exposed to UVB rays, it becomes inflamed (sunburn) and the cells in the dermis stop producing as much Hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a carbohydrate, more specifically a mucopolysaccharide occurring naturally throughout the human body. It can be several thousands of sugars (carbohydrates) long. When not bound to other molecules, it binds to water giving it a stiff viscous quality similar to “Jello”. This viscous Gel is one of the most heavily researched substances in medicine today with thousands of clinical trials mostly in the fields of orthopedics and eye surgery. Its function in the body is, amongst other things, to bind water and to lubricate movable parts of the body, such as joints and muscles. Its consistency and tissue-friendliness allows it to be used in skin-care products as an excellent moisturizer. Hyaluronic acid is one of the most hydrophilic (water-loving) molecules in nature and can be described as “nature’s moisturizer”. Unfortunately, HA also has a half-life (the time it takes for the molecule to get broken down and excreted from the body) of less than 3 days and possibly even as little as one day in the skin. For this reason, it is imperative that the body continually replenish itself with HA.

I

Isododecane
This is a synthetic product that enhances the spreadability of products and helps to prevent the evaporation of water from the skin.

J

Jojoba oil
Is the liquid wax produced in the seed of the Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plant, a shrub native to southern Arizona, southern California and northwestern Mexico. Most jojoba oil is consumed as an ingredient in cosmetics and personal care products, especially skin care and hair care. It has exceptional moisturizing properties.

K
Kumquat

Is a citrus fruit native to China. It is known to supply the body with healthy phytochemcials including carotens, lutein, tannins and others. It is considered a good anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory. The peel of kumquat bears essential oils (e.g. limonene, pinene, α-bergamotene) which are responsible for the citrus flavor and aroma.


L


Lactic acid

Also known as milk acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. It’s a carboxylic acid with a chemical formula of C3H6O3. It has a hydroxyl group adjacent to the carboxyl group, making it an alpha hydroxy acid (AHA). Derived mainly from milk. It is believed Cleopatra bathed in sour milk to improve her complexion. It is milder and less irritating than Glycolic acid.

M

Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate
“MAP” is a water soluble derivative of Vitamin C. (MAP) has been widely used in various cosmetics because of its advantageous properties such as inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, promotion of collagen synthesis, and prevention of lipid peroxidation. Utilizing MAP in personal care products are important factors in preventing dry skin, sunburn, and in keeping the skin healthy and young.

Malic acid
Malic acid is a natural substance found in fruit and vegetables, it is important for maintaining good skin health. It is classified as an “Alpha Hydroxy Acid”. Used in many products as a “mild chemical face peel”.

Melanin
Also called pigment, Melanin is a substance that gives the skin and hair it’s natural color. In humans, increased amounts of melanin result in a darker skin tone. Melanin is formed as part of the process of metabolizing an amino acid called Tyrosine. In the skin, melanin is formed by cells called melanocytes. Melanin provides many benefits to human beings.One of the most recognized benefits involves UV rays of the sun. Although it does not provide complete protection from the sun, melanin provides a natural protection against the harmful effects of these rays.

Melanogenesis
Melanogenesis is the process by which the melanocyte cells produce melanin. Melanocyte cells are found in the epidermis,hair follicle,eye,inner ear.
Exposure to UV-B radiation causes an increased melanogenesis.

Microdermabrasion
Cosmetic procedure which is very popular in day spas, doctors’ practices, and medical spas in which the stratum corneum (dead outermost surface of the skin) is partially or completely removed by light abrasion, to remove sun-damaged skin and to remove or lessen scars and dark spots on the skin.

N

O

Octyl Methoxycinnamate
This is a sunscreen agent used to absorb UV-B rays, thus protecting skin from damage.


P

Pentavitin
Is an excellent moisturizer containing naturally occurring carbohydrates similar to that of the natural carbohydrate found in the stratum corneum of human skin. Its use results in long lasting water retention in skin.

Polydimethylsiloxane
It is occasionally called dimethicone and is one of several types of silicone oil.
Dimethicone is widely used in Personal Care products as a skin protectant.

Q

R


Red Tea ( “Rooibos”)
Red Tea is grown only in a small area in the Cederberg region of the Western Cape province in South Africa.
Red Tea is a powerful Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Aging agent due to it’s high concentration of Super Oxide Dismutase ( SOD ). “SOD” is an enzyme that protects oxidative damage by functioning as a prime scavenger of free radicals. By limiting these free radicals the appearance of many types of skin imperfections,including fine lines,acne scars,and dark spots is improved. The combination of natural anti-oxidants like Red Tea, Vit C, Vit E results in a new found skin health.

Rose Hip Seed Oil
Rose Hip Seed oil is extracted from the seeds of a rose bush which grows wild in Andes. It is unique among vegetable oils since it contains Retinol ( Vit A ) and is also high in Vit C. It is also high in the essential fatty acids – Linoleic Acid ( Omega-6) and Linolenic Acid ( Omega -3 ). In 1983 the University of Santiago conducted research on 180 individuals and studied people with extensive facial scarring,deep wrinkles ,UV damage ,radiation damage ,burn scars , surgical scars , premature aging, dermatitis and other skin related problems. In these tests , Rose Hip Oil regenerated the skin,reduced scars and wrinkles ,prevented the advancement of wrinkles and aging,and helped skin to regain its natural color and tone.

S

Salicylic acid
(from the Latin word for the willow tree, Salix, from whose bark it can be obtained). It is known as a Beta Hydroxy Acid. It is oil soluble , which is the main difference between Alpha-Hydroxy Acids,which are water soluble. Thus Salicylic acid is able to penetrate the pores which contain sebum and exfoliate the dead skin cells built up inside the pore.

Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate ( SAP )
SAP is a hydrophilic derivative of Ascorbic Acid,which has improved stability. It is used in skin care products due to its important anti-oxidant actions. In order to achieve this,it has to be converted into free ascorbic acid by enzymatic degration in the skin. At concentrations of greater than 10% it has been clinically demonstrated to reduce skin roughness, reduce the intensity of age spots and perform better than 5% benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Vitamin C blocks free radicals which cause membrane damage and stimulates the production of collagen and elastin to promote skin softness and elasticity while reducing wrinkling associated with dry skin.

Squalane
Is the purified form that is used in cosmetics as a non-chemical moisturizer. The benefits are that it penetrates the skin quickly, does not leave a greasy feeling and blends well with other ingredients and is an excellent moisturizer.

Sulphur
Low Molecular weight sulphur, dissolves cellular skin buildup, helps degrease skin.

T

Tyrosinase
Tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyses the oxidation of tyrosine.

U
Ubiquinone
Ubiquinone is another name for CoQ10, a potent antioxidant naturally produced by the body. However, with age the body decreases its production. So ubiquinone is commonly used in cosmetics and personal care products as an anti-aging ingredient.

V

Vitamin A
Vitamin A helps delay the effects of skin aging,assists with cell regenration,and promotes collagen and elastin levels to increase. This results in firmer,smoother,and more youthful skin with greater elasticity.

Vitamin E
Vitamon E (α-tocopherol) is the most important lipid-soluble Antioxidant, and that it protects cell membranes from oxidation by reacting with lipid radicals produced in the lipid peroxidation chain reaction. This would remove the free radical intermediates and prevent the oxidation reaction from continuing. The oxidised α-tocopheroxyl radicals produced in this process may be recycled back to the active reduced form through reduction by other antioxidants, such as ascorbate, retinol or ubiquinol.

Vitamin F
Essential fatty acids are composed of two fatty acids - linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linoleic acid (LNA) - with linoleic acid being the most complete fatty acid. There are two basic categories of EFA's (essential fatty acids) - omega-3 and omega-6 which include linoleic acid and gamma-linoleic acid. To the skin, it brings suppleness and a youthful appearance and hair becomes more shiny and healthy when in good supply.

W

Wheat Germ Oil
Is extracted from the germ of the wheat kernel. Wheat Germ Oil has the highest content of Vitamin E of any food that has not undergone prior preparation or vitamin fortification. It also has a high content of Vitamin A and D and has strong anti-oxidant properties.

X
Xylitol
Xylitol is a sugar alcohol which we use as a humectant for our skin care products. It is thought to help the skin retain its natural moisture and boost levels of hyaluronic acid, a natural lubricant that assists in collagen production.

Y
Ylang ylang
Is an essential oil used as a fragrance in our moisturizing oils.

Z


Zinc Oxide
Highly effective skin soothing, pore purifying mineral complex.